With the acceleration of the process of transition to a market economy, since 2001, Serbia has carried out a fundamental reform of its tax system, which has undergone several further changes in the past two decades. Last year brought numerous changes to the tax system in Serbia, and the introduction of the taxation regime for digital assets and tax control were a particular focus.
The pioneering Austrian legislator is breaking new ground in the area of crypto taxation. Income from cryptocurrencies will no longer be taxed progressively, at up to 55% for individuals, but at a flat rate of 27.5% withholding tax. With these rules, the Austrian legislator has brought clarity to the taxation of crypto assets for the first time and has responded to the increased practical relevance of cryptocurrencies and the need to tax them in line with securities. The previous taxation of crypto assets was mainly based on non-binding information from the homepage of the Austrian Ministry of Finance.
In early 2021, Greece has introduced a new ambitious tax regime in order to motivate the opening of new employment positions and especially motivate Greeks who have moved abroad due to the severe economic crisis of 2010 to relocate back to Greece. In addition, salaried employees in the private sector, as well as average businessmen and freelancers who perform their activities in Greece while their tax residence is being registered abroad, can also benefit from the new favorable tax regime and transfer their tax residence in Greece.
Central European countries represented and continue to represent quite an attractive market for international investors, mainly due to the stable economic environment, relatively lower labor costs compared to the rest of the European regions, favorable tax environment, and the availability of tax incentives.
This year marks the start of a new era for all Ukrainian taxpayers – both corporate and individuals. Ukraine lawmakers up to – and especially in – 2021 made unprecedented efforts to implement into local law and the network of double tax treaties major recommendations and principles which went far beyond the minimum base erosion and profit shifting (BEPS) action plan Ukraine committed to in 2017.
In the past twelve months, energy prices seem to have taken a life of their own. Their continued and, at times, shocking growth has raised concerns across the region and prompted differing responses and policy changes in each country. To get a more accurate picture of recent developments, we reached out to experts in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Moldova, Montenegro, Poland, and Turkey and asked them about the current energy prices, their impact on local economies, the drivers behind their growth, and whether any plans were in place to address the issue.
2021 was indeed an active year for the Antimonopoly Committee of Ukraine (AMCU). It seems that antitrust enforcement did not slow down during another pandemic year but even, in fact, accelerated. The agency closed a number of investigations, having imposed million-dollar fines on players from a variety of markets. Below you may find the top trends in Ukrainian antitrust enforcement. They are worth keeping an eye on, especially for companies having or planning a business presence in Ukraine.
The Financial Administration of the Republic of Slovenia (Tax Authority) had already issued its first extensive guidelines regarding cryptocurrency taxation in 2017. According to the guidelines, capital gains generated from trading in virtual currencies by a natural person outside the scope of performing a business activity are not subject to personal income tax (PIT). Nevertheless, any income generated by a natural person as part of a business or entrepreneurial activity associated with cryptocurrencies is taxable.
In Turkey, 2021 continued to be dominated by the COVID-19 pandemic and the various legal difficulties and ambiguities that it brought. This raised several questions on how to apply the Turkish data protection law and related legislation, in particular about how to properly process data on health, vaccination status, and PCR tests.
Despite uncertainty due to the pandemic, the pace of merger activity in Turkey has not decreased and merger control is still one of the Turkish Competition Authority’s (TCA) key enforcement areas. The Law on Protection of Competition (Competition Law) amendment in June 2020 was a milestone for merger control in Turkey as it changed the substantive test for assessment of mergers. Below are some observations regarding the adoption of the new test and the TCA’s recent approach to merger control and remedies.
On December 7, 2021, CEE Legal Matters reported that Lakatos, Koves and Partners had successfully represented Facebook Ireland in a dispute with the Hungarian Competition Authority before the Kuria – the Hungarian supreme court. CEELM spoke with LKT Partner and Co-Head of Competition Eszter Ritter, who led the team, to learn more about the case.
In the past year, Danish company Flugger has begun a significant expansion across Europe and Russian-speaking parts of the world. We reached out to Flugger General Counsel Torben Schwaner Dehlholm to learn more about the company’s business and expansion, as well as its M&A strategy and in-house legal dynamics.