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Many economies, particularly those in the European Union [“EU”], are now centered on the environment-oriented and sustainable economy model known as "Green Transformation," which aims to mitigate the negative environmental consequences of human-induced parameters on the ecosystem. Turkey, also, had signaled that it would not stay out of this shift by ratifying the Paris Climate Agreement in October 2021.

On January 1, 2022, certain provisions of Articles of the Rulebook on Electromagnetic Compatibility (Official Gazette of RS no. 25/2016 and 21/2020) ceased to apply, as well as of the Rulebook on Electrical Equipment Intended for Use within Certain Voltage Limits (Official Gazette of RS no. 25/2016 and 21/2020), which refer to the conformity certificate, i.e., its mandatory provision.

The Turkish Competition Board (“Board”) has recently assessed the allegations that Allergan Ilaclari Ticaret A.S. (“Allergan”) engaged in discriminatory conduct and abused its dominant position by way of refusal to supply in its preliminary investigation decision. The complainant, Denge Ecza Deposu Ticaret A.S. (“Denge”), alleged that Allergan supplied some of its pharmaceutical products only to certain warehouses, rejected Denge’s request to work with Allergan and hindered Denge’s activities by restricting its access to Allergan’s products. The Board’s decision is remarkable as it assesses the allegations in detail under both Article 4 (anticompetitive agreements) and Article 6 (abuse of dominant position) of Law No. 4054 on the Protection of Competition (“Law No. 4054”) by discussing the competition literature on certain concepts such as indispensability and essential facilities doctrine and making references to the decisional practice in the European Union.

Copyright is a bundle of exclusive rights falling under the umbrella of Intellectual Property (IP) law. The purpose of copyright is to protect creative effort carried out by a natural person (author) expressed in a tangible form and which amounts to one of the categories of "work" as defined by the statute, some of which also require the work to be "original". The aim of this article is to draw attention to the issue of copyrightability of works that have been created illegally or that are on the verge of illegality. As this topic and the related issues are quite extensive, this article offers only a brief introduction to the subject and is by no means exhaustive.

In the past years, several new EU Member States have started investigations regarding the quality of products. Investigations showed that in many cases products have more detailed descriptions attached, or simply have more active substance if they are sold in the Western Member States than in the Central and Eastern European Member States. It was suspected for a long time that there are quality differences between the same products, sold in the same packaging but in different countries.

In recent years, crowdfunding has become an increasingly popular source of financing for companies, especially start-ups. Crowdfunding is also a great marketing tool, as it allows companies to reach a wide spectrum of potential investors.

Law No. 805 on Compulsory Use of Turkish Language in Economic Institutions ["Law No. 805"] has been in effect for very long time, i.e., since April 22, 1926. Even though it is an old regulation with only 9 articles, it has sparked debate regarding international contracts over the years, particularly in the field of arbitration, and it has even become a roadblock in our legal system regarding the validity of contracts.

On 14 December 2021 certain acts of agricultural subject were amended by the Hungarian Parliament, affecting inter alia the Act on Protection, Management of Wildlife and Hunting, the Forest Act, the Act on Transactions in Agricultural and Forestry Land (Land Transactions Act) and the Act on the Termination of the Undivided Joint Ownership on lands.

On 19 November 2021 the Parliament of the Republic of Serbia enacted amendments to the Company Law. The amendments are applicable as of 27 November 2021, except for certain clauses for which a deferred implementation is provided. This is the seventh time the Company Law undergoes changes since it was enacted ten years ago.

The Advertisement Board rendered an advertisement ban decision and concluded that the use of registered trademarks on a business sign without a contractual relationship with the proprietor of displayed trademarks is an unfair commercial practice. The Advertisement Board’s reasoning is that such use on the business sign without any legal contractual relationship, such as license agreements, creates the wrong impression over the consumer that this particular business is an authorized service shop of the business products bearing the displayed trademarks. The decision of the Advertisement Board is published on the Advertisement Board Meeting Press Bulletin dated May 4, 2021 and numbered 309.

Several modifications of the company rules in the Hungarian Civil Code entered into force with effect of 1 January 2022. One of the most important changes is that the rules on additional payment (in Hungarian: “potbefizetes”), which were applicable only for limited liability companies, have been transferred to the common rules of companies, resulting in that the possibility to require additional payment from the members is available also for general partnerships, limited partnerships and private limited companies.